ASSESSMENTS

Forensic Solutions LLC specializes in the following areas of evidence examination and assessment: Crime Reconstruction, Crime Scene Analysis, Criminal Profiling, Case Linkage, Premises Liability (e.g, crime prevention, deterrability  and foreseeability), False Allegations, Staged Crime Scenes, and Law Enforcement Shootings, Use of Force, and In-Custody Deaths. 

These forensic assessments are conducted with the expectation of providing affidavits, written reports, and expert testimony when necessary.

 

Download our 2020 brochure to the right, and scroll down to learn more.

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1. Crime Reconstruction
Crime Reconstruction is the determination of the actions and events surrounding the commission of a crime. It is accomplished by the scientific examination and interpretation of all physical evidence and related testing. These results are then compared to the statements of witnesses, living victims, and suspects.


Crime reconstruction is the domain of forensic scientists training as generalists, as it requires the intersectional understanding and evaluation of reports from multiple investigative and forensic professionals. Some of which may be more reliable or scientific than others.

 

Crime reconstruction includes trace evidence examination, bloodstain pattern analysis, shooting incident reconstruction, wound pattern analysis, and tool mark 


2. Crime Scene Analysis (CSA)
A CSA is a comprehensive investigative and forensic report examines and interprets the behavioral evidence associated with a particular crime, or a series of related crimes. It includes a Crime Reconstruction section, a Forensic Victimology section, and a Crime Scene Characteristics section to assess modus operandi, signature, and motive related behaviors. This information is a requirement for the completion of most non-laboratory investigative and forensic reporting, and the purposes for its collection are detailed in both national and agency related protocols.

Forensic criminologists are involved in the aggregation of this evidence into one report, and related behavioral interpretations.



3. Criminal Profiling
This is an investigative tool that infers offender characteristics from the analysis of criminal behavior. It is based on the examinations completed during a CSA. It is useful for focusing in on offender motivation, understanding victim selection, and narrowing the suspect pool to allocate resources more effectively. 

When it is used in court by overzealous or unqualified analysts, the quality of results can vary. Forensic criminologists may become involved when there is a need to assess the nature and quality of criminal profiles that are being used in an overconfident fashion, or in a manner that is not bound to any scientific literature and established protocols.



4. Case Linkage
Case linkage, or linkage analysis, is the process of determining whether there are reliable connections between two or more previously unrelated cases, generally using the results of crime scene analysis. In accordance with legal rulings, this is accomplished through a careful examination of offender modus operandi and signature behavior, and expressed with established levels of certainty.

Forensic criminologists become involved when courts allow testimony on case linkage issues for the purpose of demonstrating a common plan, scheme, or design in actual or alleged serial offenses. This legal theory is generally used when there is no physical evidence linking the cases. It may also involve uncharged offenses. Conseqwuently, there is a need to ensure that the scientific literature is not being misrepresented, that contradictory behavioral evidence is not being ignored, and that established investigative protocols have been followed.



5. Premises Liability
Premises liability is the civil responsibility incurred by property owners who fail to provide reasonable and adequate security to their tenets, lessees, customers, and other invited patrons or guests while on their property. This includes open spaces, parking lots, and any of the structures within. This liability can include harm caused by third parties engaged in the commission of criminal acts, such as theft, robbery, sexual assault, kidnapping, and murder.

Forensic criminologists are involved in the examination of physical security concerns, written protocols, duty of care, criminal foreseeability, criminal deterrability, and the evaluation of other crime prevention related issues - in order to help the courts assess the extent of this liability.



6. False Allegations
   & Staged Crime Scenes

A false report (or false allegation) refers to any untruthful statement, accusation, or complaint to authorities asserting that a crime did or will occur. A false reporter is one who makes false allegations or reports. False reporting is generally a crime, even when reports are made indirectly to authorities by a third party, such as a friend, intimate partner, spouse, employer, counselor, or medical professional. Similarly, staged crime scenes are intended to simulate an event other than what actually occurred, either to deflect responsibility to another person or hide the crime entirely. 

Forensic criminologists are involved in the assessment of false allegations and staged crime scenes as a routine matter. They must be considered as possibilities in every case. This requires crime reconstruction, discerning evidentiary inconsistencies, and the consideration of established red flags. In civil matters, it also involves a review of investigative protocols, to determine whether investigators met their basic duty of care as define by their respective agencies and professional community standards.

7. Police Shootings / Use of Force / In-Custody Death

For years, we have been asked to either reconstruct law enforcement involved shootings, or to evaluate law enforcement use of force in a variety of criminal, civil, and administrative For years, we have been asked to either reconstruct law enforcement involved shootings, or to evaluate law enforcement use of force in a variety of criminal, civil, and administrative contexts. Sometimes this  means objectively reconstructing events to determine what actually occurred; sometimes it means the evaluation of known actions in light of established policies and protocols; and sometimes it means conducting top to bottom audits of specific incidents. 

These kinds of assessments require experienced examiners, unbiased in their approach to both the evidence and law enforcement culture. Too often, however, this work is done by insiders and activists. Insiders (police, former police, and government agents) seek to conceal negligence and misconduct, limit liability, and protect the image of the law enforcement community with which they identify. Activists are desperate to advance a political agenda. Both are viewed skeptically.

We work every side of these issues, and without interest in predetermined outcomes or political concerns. This means strict adherence to the factual evidence, clearly establishing law enforcement protocols, and assessment of use of force issues using The Istanbul Protocols. In short, if you want political cover and talking points for a spokesperson, call an insider or an activist. If you want to know the facts of your case based on the evidence, you call us. 

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