PROFILING EXTRACT FROM GRT SEARCH
Niagara Regional Police
In the case of Paul BERNARDO
Executed on February 19th, 1993
57 Bayview Drive, Niagara
I. ANALYSIS OF OFFENDER CHARACTERISTICS
I, the Affiant have been given a report entitled "Analysis of Offender Characteristics" by Inspector Vincent BEVAN of the Niagara Regional Police. Through my discussions with Inspector BEVAN he has advised me that he has consulted with Supervisory Special Agent Gregg O. MCCRARY of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. MCCRARY's report is summarized as follows:
Supervisory Special Agent Gregg O. MCCRARY has twenty-three years experience with the FBI and is a Criminal Investigative Analyst with the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC) at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. NCAVC is a law enforcement oriented behavioral science and computerized resource center which consolidates research, training and investigative support functions to assist law enforcement agencies with violent crimes which are particularly complex or bizarre. Since 1981, NCAVC has focused its research capabilities upon serial killers and severe sexual offenders utilizing behavioral science methodology to develop a reliable data base and analytical framework for use in law enforcement. The unit reviews and studies information contained in hundreds of cases which are submitted each year for consultation purposes. The foundation of its data base is empirical research into the case histories of some thirty-six serial killers (i.e., three or more killings in separate incidents), forty-one rapists (each responsible for at least ten such offenses), fifty arsonists, seventeen child abductors/molesters and thirty sexual sadists. Refer to the article "The Sexually Sadistic Criminal and His Offenses" which is included as Appendix G to this Information. This research project has included an exhaustive review of the investigative files, in-depth interviews of each offender, and selected interviews of surviving victims.
Gregg O. MCCRARY, a Supervisory Special Agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), is assigned to the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVA) at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia, Supervisory Special Agent MCCRARY serves both as a consultant to law enforcement agencies and a research project coordinator. He entered on duty as a Special Agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1969 and served in various investigative capacities throughout the United States. He has been associated with the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime since 1985.
He consults in the investigation and prosecution of such crimes as serial murder, serial rape, sexual homicides, kidnappings, and child abductions/molestations. His duties also include supervising 3 other Supervisory Special Agents. MCCRARY is a contributing author to the Crime Classification Manual published in 1992 by Lexington Press. This work is the first to systematically classify homicides, sexual assaults and arsons.
He has provided expert witness testimony before Select Senate Committees on Sexual Violence as well as in homicide trials in the United States. He has consulted on thousands of cases throughout the United States, Canada, Central America, Australia, England, Austria, Italy and China. Agent MCCRARY has provided consultation or instruction to the Central Intelligence Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, National College of District Attorneys, National Criminal Intelligence Service of the Netherlands and numerous other local, stats, federal and international agencies.
Agent MCCRARY's work in serial murder has been highlighted in a Public Broadcasting System documentary entitled, "The Mind of a Serial Killer" and he has provided expert commentary to Cable News Network (CNN) television regarding serial murder.
Agent MCCRARY's formal education includes a Master's degree in psychology from Marymount University. He is a featured speaker to legal, medical, law enforcement and private sector audiences throughout the world.
Special Agent MCCRARY and his colleagues at NCAVC studied the available information (most of which is provided herein) about the first eight (8) offences of a then unknown offender called the Scarborough Rapist. During those offenses the rapist displayed several sexually sadistic characteristics and was becoming more and more violent as demonstrated by his punishing and beating of the victims. As a result of the behaviour of this offender, Mr. MCCRARY was able to predict that the danger posed by this person would escalate. The use of force beyond that necessary to subdue the victims, together with the psychological abuse, assisted in identifying this offender as a sexual sadist.
Special Agent MCCRARY is of the opinion that as time passed the sadistic component of this offender's actions would continue to grow. Research has demonstrated that such an offender will not stop of his own volition. He only stops with the exertion of external forces, that is he either dies or is in custody. The offenses may stop in a given area because this type of offender moves, but Mr. MCCRARY would expect to see the offender act out in the area to which he has relocated.
In the case of Paul BERNARDO, he moved from the Scarborough area and the offenses attributable to the Scarborough Rapist stopped. Within nine (9) weeks of BERNARDO's arrival in St. Catharines, a rape occurred in close proximity to his new home. This rape clearly demonstrated the same modus operandi used by the Scarborough Rapist as described elsewhere in this document. This pattern is predictable in the case of the sexual sadist. Mr. MCCRARY would expect to see another offence in close proximity to the offender's new home and the cycle would start all over again.
Mr. MCCRARY predicted an escalation in the nature of offenses based upon a lifestyle change. In the case of Paul BERNARDO, while living in Scarborough, he was in a home which was controlled by his parents. Once he moved to St. Catharines, he had a home of his own over which he was able to exert complete control. This change in his circumstances, aids him in the escalation of his offenses to the point where he can now bring his victims home.
Abduction is a predictable progression for the sexual sadist. However, abduction of a victim virtually guarantees that murder will result. If the sexual sadist has held a victim he feels in his own mind that he can't possibly let them go. As his fantasy escalates he needs more control and gains that control through abduction and forcible confinement of his victims. The ultimate fantasy of a sexual sadist is to totally possess his victims, both physically and psychologically. He seeks to achieve control over their life and ultimately over their death as well.
In the expert opinion of Mr. MCCRARY it is predictable that some of the Scarborough Rapist's victims would be killed by this point in time. Rapists identified as sexual sadists are statistically less than 2% of all of these types of offenders. Therefore, the probability of having more than one of these type of offenders in the geographic area and population we are concerned with is statistically very remote. There is a high probability that the Scarborough Rapist and the sexual sadistic murderer of MAHAFFY and FRENCH is the same offender.
Further, sexual sadist tendencies when combined with a very rare phenomenon where hair is collected from victims, as BERNARDO did with two women in Scarborough, and as happened with Kristen French, is a strong indicator this is the same offender. The taking of hair satisfies BERNARDO's need to punish, degrade and disgrace his victims. It also serves as a trophy.
Special Agent MCCRARY and his colleagues at NCAVC studied the available information on the murders of Leslie Mahaffy and Kristen French and concluded that they are likely victims of a sexual sadist. Paul BERNARDO demonstrates almost all of the characteristics which are typically found in the sexually sadistic serial killer. The constellation of characteristics which NCAVC research has consistently encountered in such offenders includes each of the following:
Parental Infidelity or Divorce
Physically Abused in Childhood
Sexually Abused in Childhood
Married at Time of Offence
Incestuous Involvement with Own Child
Known Homosexual Experience
Known History of Peeping, Obscene Telephone Calls
or Indecent Exposure
Shared Sexual Partners with Another Man
Education Beyond High School
The following characteristics, from the police investigation described above, apply to Paul BERNARDO:
White male: Same
Above average intelligence: Investigators have established that BERNARDO completed a four year University Degree in three years.
Neat and well groomed: Surveillance has established that BERNARDO presents himself very well in a social setting, especially during daytime. However, during the hours of darkness while stalking potential victims, his appearance changes
Parental conflict: Family members report that BERNARDO expresses hatred for his mother and thinks she is crazy. At age 14 years BERNARDO learned that who he had thought of as his father was actually his step-father since he was a product of his mother's affair with another man.
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Will select an occupation which makes him an authority figure: When asked about employment, BERNARDO told his wife's parents, who have been interviewed, that he was involved in a secret "project". He currently claims to be involved in writing "rap" music and has told his sister-in-law that he will be the white "M.C. Hammer" a popular black rap musician.
Fascination with weapons: Several people have reported that BERNARDO has a "special" knife that he usually keeps in his car under a seat. A prior girlfriend, who also became a victim, describes this knife as having a personal inscription on the blade. A knife has been used in numerous offenses. Family members have disclosed that BERNARDO has purchased a "Stun gun" and normally keeps it under his bed.
Compulsive driving: Surveillance has established that BERNARDO for several days in a row, drove an average of 650 kilometres.
Initially presents the image of a sincere, caring, loving and attentive individual: Past girlfriends and his wife's family all report that BERNARDO, during the early stages of his relationships, showered the women with gifts and attention. He maintained an outward appearance of being loving and attentive.
Dominating personality: Family members report that BERNARDO told his wife how to wear her hair and chose her clothing. Over the course of time he isolated her from her former friends. A close friend of BERNARDO, Van Smirnis, disclosed that he observed many occasions when BERNARDO treated his wife with a total lack of respect. In January 1993, after charges were laid against BERNARDO for beating his wife, she disclosed a long history of physical abuse.
Obsession with sexual sadism; suffers from an overpowering compulsion to inflict pain upon and totally dominate anysexual companion: A former girlfriend has disclosed that BERNARDO was unable to achieve an erection unless he frightened or inflicted pain on her. With that woman, BERNARDO used ligatures around her neck while engaging in anal intercourse. He also used foreign objects including bottles and sticks by inserting them into both vaginal and anal cavities of his victims. Further, any non-compliance on the part of his victims or willing sexual partners resulted in violence.
Compulsively collects and uses pornography: A friend, Van SMIRNIS, has reported that BERNARDO made a videotape of himself having sex with an unknown woman. He then showed the video to his wife. SMIRNIS also reports that BERNARDO disclosed that his wife had been searching their home for a video tape that recorded her having sex with another woman. Further, BERNARDO is known to own a video camera and playback equipment. He, as a matter of habit, videotapes people and events and collects these.
Collects and keeps as trophies and mementos personal items belonging to past victims (e.g., undergarments, shoes, jewellery, wallets or identification); such trophies then serve as a source of perverse gratification and enrich the offender's sexual fantasies: Investigation has revealed that each victim has lost item during the attack which could be characterized as a "trophy". Trophies include photo identification, articles of clothing, jewellery, head and pubic hairs.
Selects victims who are particularly vulnerable -favours the young: Most victims are young women found alone at the time of the attack. Victims all have the appearance of being between 14 and 18 years of age.
Married at time of offense: Paul and Karla BERNARDO lived together from February 1991 at 57 Bayview Drive. They were married June 29, 1991. Therefore they were in at least a common-law relationship at the time of MAHAFFY and FRENCH.
Known history of Peeping or Obscene telephone calls: In at least one of the Scarborough Rapist offenses BERNARDO told the victim he had watched her inside her home. One other victim reported receiving telephone calls after her attack. In addition, the victim in the Henley Island attack also reported phone calls.
93% of sexually sadistic serial killers plan their crimes carefully: Surveillance has established evidence of stalking victims during both the daytime and night-time. The method of disposal of the body in the MAHAFFY case is indicative of planning. The condition of the body in the French case also indicates planning since the body was cleaned to remove trace evidence. All rape attacks occurred in dark areas where there was some sort of cover. Also during the rapes he forced victims to swallow semen in order to destroy biological samples.
According to Special Agent MCCRARY, the NCAVC research found that the sexually sadistic serial killer exhibits a high degree of predictability in his criminal behaviour. Accordingly, Special Agent MCCRARY believes that it is not a question of whether, but when, Paul BERNARDO will offend again. Since there is no limit upon his appetite for sadistic gratification, it is only a question of time until his next victim does or refuses to do something which he perceives as a threat to his control over her. When that happens, he will react as he has always reacted. The documented case histories demonstrate conclusively that offenders like Paul BERNARDO cannot stop raping and killing of their own volition. They stop only when they are stopped by external forces.
Offender activity may be suppressed for a time. Close brushes with law enforcement would lead to a period of inactivity. In BERNARDO's case, he was interviewed as a suspect in the Scarborough Rapist case in November 1990. No offence was committed in that area after that time. This behaviour is consistent and predictable. However, this quiet period will consistently be followed by renewed activity by the offender. Hence the offence in St. Catharines in April 1991.
Special Agent MCCRARY agrees with those who attended the case review conference that Paul BERNARDO will react as predicted.
Finally, with respect to the likelihood that tangible evidence will be recovered through additional searches, Special Agent MCCRARY indicated to the Task Force in the month of May, 1992, that he believed that such evidence does exist and can be recovered for the following reasons:
Supervisory Special Agent MCCRARY relates that a prime characteristic of the sadistic offender is to keep and conceal journals, graphic materials and particularly audio and video tapes which will feed his fantasies and enable him to relive the exhilarating moments of his past offenses for continual gratification. Indeed, 53% of the sexually sadistic offenders studied by NCAVC actually memorialized their offenses in some tangible form. Depending upon the particular offender's living arrangements and how secure he feels in any particular location, this collection of memorabilia may be hidden but will be somewhere within reasonably easy access. Paul BERNARDO should feel relatively safe in his home because although he was a suspect in the Scarborough Rapes and provided biological samples, 27 months have elapsed since he gave those samples and nothing has happened to him. He has no reason to believe that he is currently the target of any police investigation. Hence, he is likely to have his stash of "trophies" and mementos of the kind described above concealed in his home or in a related storage area, the location of which a thorough search of the home should reveal.
The high risk nature of the abduction of Kristen French was a predictable action of a sexual sadist such as Paul BERNARDO. Since he believes he was not detected when biological samples were collected from him in November 1990, his confidence has grown and he has developed a sense of invulnerability. He will begin to think he won't be apprehended and therefore he indulges in more high risk offenses.
The opinions and information above described, provided by Special Agent Gregg MCCRARY, have been reviewed by Peter I. COLLINS, M.C.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. (C). Doctor COLLINS concurs with the opinions offered by Mr. MCCRARY. Rapists who are also sexual sadists are rare. Doctor COLLINS is the Consultant Psychiatrist, Violent Crime Analysis Section of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Doctor COLLINS has further referred me to the following excerpts from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.) revised (1987) at pages 287 and 288:
AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION
DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS
3RD EDITION - REVISED 1987
302.84 SEXUAL SADISM......
Sadistic fantasies or acts may involve activities that indicate the dominance of the person over his victim (e.g. forcing the victim to crawl, or keeping the victim in a cage), or restraint, blindfolding, paddling, spanking, whipping, pinching, beating, burning, electrical shocks, rape, cutting or stabbing, strangulation, torture, mutilation, or killing.........Differential diagnosis. Rape or other sexual assault may be committed by people with this disorder. In such instances the suffering inflicted on the victim is far in excess of that necessary to gain compliance, and the visible pain of the victim is sexually arousing.
Similar evidence relating to sexual sadism was recently held to be admissible in evidence as going to the issue of propensity to commit the offence: Regina v. Pierre Malboeuf, (February 24, 1992). Unreported judgment of the Ontario Court of Justice (General Division). The following holding of Mr. Justice MCWILLIAM is relevant:
For the reasons I have outlined, I have concluded that evidence from the alleged crime scene, the apartment of the accused, including drawings and art work found there, and evidence of his past relationships may indicate sadist sexual interests on the part of the accused. In my view its probative force outweighs the risk of a jury convicting the accused unfairly. Given the rarity, in absolute terms, of death caused by asphyxia in possible circumstances of non-consensual bondage, Dr. BRADFORD is right in my view when he says commonplace inferences in such cases might very well be misleading.